Cavite

Cavite (Tagalog pronunciation: [kab’i’te], (Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Cavite), is a province in the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the CALABARZON region in Luzon, just 30 kilometers south of Manila. Cavite is surrounded by Laguna to the east, Metro Manila to the northeast, and Batangas to the south. To the west lies the South China Sea.

Etymology

The name “Cavite” comes the Hispanicized form of kawit or it is a corruption of kalawit, Tagalog words for “hook,” in reference to the small hook-shaped peninsula jutting into Manila Bay.[2] The name originally only applied to the peninsula (Cavite La Punta, now Cavite City) and the adjacent lowland coastal area (Cavite Viejo, now Kawit). Cavite City used to serve as the capital of the province until 1954, and as with many other provinces organized during the Spanish colonial era, the name of the capital was applied to the whole province.

Another theory proposes that the name is a Hispanicized form of kabit, Tagalog for “joined,” “connected,” or “attached,” referring to the peninsula’s topographical relation to the mainland.[2]

Geography

Cavite is located within the Greater Manila Area, not to be confused with adjacent Metro Manila, the defined capital district. The urban influence of the metropolis together with easy accessibility, adequate infrastructure and comparatively fresh natural setting makes the picturesque province an ideal refuge.

Land area

Cavite is the smallest province in the CALABARZON region. Cavite occupies land area of 1,427.06 square kilometres (550.99 sq mi) which is approximately 8.72 percent of CALABARZON’s total land area, 2.74 percent of the regional area and 0.48 per cent of the total land area of the Philippines. The municipalities of Maragondon and Silang have the biggest land areas comprising 165.49 square kilometres (63.90 sq mi) and 156.41 square kilometres (60.39 sq mi) respectively, while the municipality of Noveleta has the smallest land area as indicated by 5.41 square kilometres (2.09 sq mi) or 0.38 percent of the provincial total and area.[3]

Population

Cavite has a total population of 3,090,601 according to the 2010 Census, making it the most populous (if independent cities are excluded from Cebu and Negros Occidental), and the second most densely-populated province in the country. The tremendous increase can be observed in the year 1990 when industrialization was introduced in the province. Investors established their businesses in different industrial estates that magnetized people to migrate to Cavite due to job opportunities the province offers. Another factor attributed to the increase of population is the mushrooming of housing subdivisions. Since Cavite is proximate to Metro Manila, people working in the metropolitan area choose to live in the province together with their families. Natural increase also contributes to the increase in population. The population density of the province based on the census of May 1, 2010 is 2,200/sq km or 5,600/sq mi.[4]

Among the cities and municipalities in Cavite, the city of Dasmariñas has the biggest population with 556,330 people while the municipality of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo has registered the smallest population with 17,818 people.

Cavite is classified as predominantly urban having 90.69 percent of the population are concentrated in the urban areas, while 9.21 percent of the population reside in rural areas.

Islands of Cavite

  1. Balot Island, located at the mouth of Ternate River
  2. Caballo Island
  3. Corregidor
  4. El Fraile Island
  5. Carabao Island
  6. La Monja Island, located west of Corregidor
  7. Limbones Island, located off Maragondon coast near Batangas border
  8. Pulo ni Burunggoy (now Island Cove Resort) located in Bacoor Bay[6]
  9. Santa Amalia Island, located NW of Corregidor

Topography and slope

Situated at the entrance of Manila Bay, Cavite is characterized by rolling hinterlands punctuated by hills; shoreland fronting Manila Bay at sea level; and rugged portion at the boundary of Batangas where the Dos Picos mountains are located. The province has two principal rivers and two mountain ranges.

Cavite is divided into four physiographical areas, namely: the lowest lowland area, lowland area, the central hilly area and the upland mountainous area.

  • The lowest lowland area is the coastal plain in particular. These areas have extremely low ground level of EL. 0m to EL. 2m compared to the high tide level of about EL. 0.8m from the Mean Sea Level (MSL). These are the cities of Cavite, Bacoor and the municipalities of Kawit, Noveleta, Rosario, northern part of Carmona and eastern part of Ternate.
  • The lowland area consists of the coastal and alluvial plains. These areas have flat ground slope of less than 0.5% and low ground elevation of EL. 2m to EL. 30m. The alluvial plain can be found in the city of Imus and southern part of General Trias. Into these municipalities forms the transition area between the coastal plain and the central hilly area. It also covers some areas of Bacoor, Kawit, Noveleta, Rosario, Tanza and Carmona.
  • The third topography type is the central hilly area, generally found on the mountain foot slope. It forms the rolling tuffaceous plateau. This topography includes steep hills, ridges and elevated inland valley. The plateau is characterized with ground elevation ranging from 30m to nearly 400m. Its ground slope ranges from 0.5 to 2%. The city of Trece Martires and Dasmariñas and the municipalities of General Emilio Aguinaldo, General Mariano Alvarez, Indang, Maragondon, Ternate, Silang and Carmona have this kind of topography.
  • The last topography type is upland mountainous area, found in Magallanes, Amadeo, Tagaytay, Mendez, Alfonso, southern part of Maragondon and Carmona. They are situated at a very high elevation above EL. 400m with slopes of more than 2%.[8] The Tagaytay ridge has an average elevation of 610 metres (2,000 ft) with Mount Sungay (now Peoples Park in the Sky) at 14°8′31.71″N 121°1′19.02″E, the highest elevation in the province at 716 metres (2,349 ft).[9] The mountain was much higher before, topped by rock formations that resembled horns (Sungay in Tagalog) hence the name. Unfortunately, the prominence of the mountain was leveled in half during the construction of Peoples Park in the Sky during the Marcos administration.

Land resources and distribution

Cavite’s land resources are categorized into two: forest lands and alienable and disposable lands. Forest lands are being maintained as they play a great role for the ecological balance of the Province aside from the fact that they are home to numerous flora and fauna that needs to be protected and preserved. Correspondingly, the alienable and disposable lands are the built-up areas as well as production areas. These lands are intended for urban, economic and demographic developments.

Forest Lands

Cavite Province lies in the western monsoon forest zone. This location is very beneficial for the formation of tropical rainforests which are characteristically made through natural vegetation. In 2007, the existing for estarea within the province totalled to 8,624.956 hectares. These forest areas were categorized as Protected Landscape under R.A.7586 otherwise known as National Integrated Protected Area System (NIPAS) and the unclassified forest (Non-N I P A S ) . By virtue of Proclamation Number 1594 on 26 October 1976, a total of 4,000 hectares located in Ternate and Maragondon, Cavite was proclaimed as national park, now known as the Mts. Palay-Palay and Mataas na Gulod Protected Landscape. The park lies in the border of Cavite and Batangas and has three peaks, Palay-Palay, Pico de Loro and Mataas na Gulod. Still, there were five (5) unclassified forests found along Tagaytay Ridge, Maragondon, Magallanes, Ternate and Alfonso . With regards to the records of mountains, seven were named such as Pico de Loro, Mt. Palay-Palay, Mt. Buntis, Mt. Mataas na Gulod, Mt. Nagpatong, Mt. Hulog and Mt. Gonzales.

The richness of Cavite’s forest provides the abundance of different forest products. Grass in nature, bamboo, is one of the most available forest products being found in the municipalities of Ternate, Magallanes, Maragondon and General Aguinaldo throughout the year.

Alienable and Disposable Lands

These lands are being used in various ways, either for agriculture, residences, open areas, etc. These actual uses are termed as land-u s e .

Based on the Cavite Provincial Physical Framework Plan 2005-2010, Cavite’s alienable and disposable lands are further classified into production lands and built-up areas. Production lands in Cavite are intended for agriculture, fishery and mining. On the other hand, built-up areas are mainly for residential areas, commercial, industrial and tourism areas.

Production Land-Use

Majority of production land-use is into agriculture. Considering that 50.33% of the total provincial land area is engaged into agriculture, it can be generalized that in spite of rapid urbanization in the province, Cavite remains to have an agricultural economy that makes food security attainable. Some of the major crops being produced in the province are rice, corn, coffee, coconuts, cutflowers and vegetables.

Included in the agricultural land use are livestock farms that range from piggeries, poultries, goat farms and cattle farms. The climatic suitability of Cavite makes the province ideal for integrated farming, having crops and livestock rising in one farm.

Fishery is also another major component of the agricultural sector. Having rich marine resources and long coastlines, the province is home to numerous fishery activities . This industry has provided livelihood to many Caviteños. In some lowland and even upland areas, fishery, in the form of fish ponds are also producing considerable amount of fish products. Some areas in Cavite are also engaged in fish processing and production of fish products like fish sauce.

Mining is the third component of production land-use in the province. As of 2009, there are 15 mining and quarrying areas operating in Cavite. Extraction includes filling materials, gravel and sand.

Built-up Areas

The built-up areas are mainly composed of residential and industrial sites. This also includes commercial and business areas where commerce is transpiring. According to the 2007 Census of Population and Housing by the National Statistics Office, there are 611,450 occupied housing units in Cavite.

Moreover, according to the Housing and Land-Use Regulatory Board, there are around 1,224 housing subdivisions with issued license to sell in the province until 2009 which occupies an area of 9,471 hectares.

Meanwhile, the industrial sector also develops rapidly in the Province. For 2009, operational industrial estates cover around 2,939 hectares. Tourism establishments are also considered built-up areas such as golf courses, leisure farms, resorts and the likes.[8]

Water resources

Six major rivers are identified in Cavite. Numerous springs, waterfalls and rivers found in the upland areas of the province are observed to be useful for domestic, tourism, and industrial users. The province is also endowed with waterfalls.

The hydrological network of the province is composed of main rivers and tributaries. These rivers and tributaries generally have a flowing direction from the highlands of Tagaytay going to Manila Bay with stretches from the City of Bacoor up to Ternate.

In the lowland areas covering the cities of Bacoor, Imus, Dasmariñas and the towns of General Trias, Naic, Tanza, Ternate, hundreds of artesian wells and deepwells provide water supply for both domestic and irrigation purposes.

Cavite boasts a stretch of about 123 kilometers of shoreline. These can be found along Cavite City, Bacoor, Kawit, Noveleta, Rosario, Tanza, Naic, Maragondon, and Ternate. The richness of Cavite’s coastal resources paved the way for our recognition as major producer of oysters and mussels. The fisherfolks are also active producers of sugpo/bangus. On the western coastlines lie the breathtaking beaches with pale gray sand. Thus, basically, coastal resource of the province contributes to the economic activities related to fishery and tourism.

Major Rivers

These rivers are known to have various tributaries passing through the municipalities of the province.

  1. Maragondon River
  2. Labac River
  3. Cañas River
  4. San Juan River
  5. Bacoor River
  6. Imus River
  • Springs
  1. Balite Spring (Amadeo)
  2. Saluysoy Spring (Alfonso)
  3. Matang Tubig Spring (Tagaytay)
  4. Malakas Spring ( General Aguinaldo)
  5. Ulo Spring (Mendez)
  • Mini Dam
  1. Prinsa Dam (Bacoor City)
  • Waterfalls
  1. Palsajingin Falls (Indang)
  2. Balite Falls (Amadeo)
  3. Malibiclibic Falls (Gen. Aguinaldo)
  4. Talon-Butas Falls (Gen. Aguinaldo)
  5. Saluysoy Falls (Alfonso)
  6. Tala River (Gen. Aguinaldo)

Soil properties

Cavite is composed of several soil types according to soil surveys conducted by the Bureau of Soils and Water Management (BSWM). Classification of soil types in a specific area is a very important consideration in identifying its most fitted land-use. This way, utmost productivity can be achieved.

The lowland area of Cavite is generally composed of Guadalupe clay and clay loam. It is characterized as coarse and granular when dry but sticky and plastic when wet. Its substratum is solid volcanic tuff. These types of soils are suited to lowland rice and corn while those in the upland are suited for orchard and pasture. Guadalupe clay adobes are abundant in the southern part of Bacoor and Imus bordering Dasmariñas. The soil is hard and compact and difficult to cultivate that makes it generally unsuitable for diverse cropping. It is very sticky when wet and granular when dry. Forage grass is advised for this type of soil. Hydrosol and Obando sand are found along Bacoor Bay. The shoreline of Rosario, Tanza, Naic and Ternate are lined with Guadalupe sand.

The central area principally consists of Magallanes loam with streaks of Magallanes clay loam of sandy texture. This is recommended for diversified farming such as the cultivation of upland rice, corn, sugarcane, vegetables, coconut, coffee, mangoes and other fruit trees. The steep phase should be forested or planted to rootcrops. The eastern side of Cavite consists of Carmona clay loam with streaks of Carmona clay loam steep phase and Carmona sandy clay loam. This type of soil is granular with tuffaceaous material and concretions. It is hard and compact when dry, sticky and plastic when wet. This type of soil is planted to rice with irrigation or sugarcane without irrigation. Fruit trees such as mango, avocado and citrus are also grown in this type of soil. Guingua fine sandy loam is found along the lower part of Malabon and Alang-ilang River at Noveleta.

The type of soils that dominate the upland areas are Tagaytay loam and Tagaytay sandy loam with mountain soil undifferentiated found on the south-eastern side bordering Laguna province. Also on the southern tip are Magallanes clay and Mountain soil undifferentiated with interlacing of Magallanes clay loam steep phase. The Tagaytay loam contains fine sandy materials, moderately friable, and easy to work on when moist. In an undisturbed condition, it bakes and becomes hard when dry. About one-half of this soil type is devoted to upland rice and upland crops. On the other hand, Tagaytay sandy loam is friable and granular with considerable amount of volcanic sand and underlain by adobe clay. Mountain soil undifferentiated is forested with bamboos found in the sea coast. Cavite also has the Patungan sand characterized by pale gray to almost white sand with substratum of marine conglomerates which are found at Sta. Mercedes in Maragondon and in some coastlines of Ternate.[8]

Mineral resources and reserves

The greater parts of Cavite are composed of volcanic materials, tuff, cinders, basalt, breccias, agglomerate and interbeddings of shales, and sandstones. The dormant and active volcanoes (Taal) are within these volcanic areas and have been the sources of volcanic materials which form the Tagaytay Cuesta. The drainage systems are deeply entrenched in the tuffs, eroding thin interbedded sandstones and conglomerate rocks which are the sources of little reserves of sand and gravel in the larger stream. Adobe stone quarries also flourish in the tuff areas.

Cavite coastal areas have marl and conglomerate sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks which are prominent in the high, mountainous regions of western part of the province. Black sands are found in Kawit while Noveleta has its own salt products. Magallanes has gravel deposits while reserves of sand and gravel materials are found in Alfonso, Carmona, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, Naic, Ternate, Maragondon and Silang.[8]

Climate

Cavite belongs to Type 1 climate based on the Climate Map of the Philippines by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration(PAGASA). Being a Type 1, Cavite has two pronounced seasons – the dry season, which usually begins in November and ends in April, and the rainy season, which starts in May and ends in October. Cavite’s cool periods are from December to February while summer months are from April to May.[8]

History

 

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Cavite Hymn

Cavite is named as the Historical Capital of the Philippines. It is the cradle of Philippine Revolution, and the birthplace of Philippine Independence.

Cavite Mutiny

Part of the Philippine revolts against Spain

Date

January 20, 1872

Location

Fort San Felipe, Cavite, Philippines

Result

Spanish victory

Belligerents

 Spain Filipino workers and military personnel

Commanders and leaders

Felipe Ginoves Sgt. Ferdinand La Madrid

Strength

One regiment, four cannons Around 200 soldiers and laborers

Cavite got its name from a Tagalog word kawit (which means hook) owing to the hook-shaped land on the Old Spanish map. The land was formerly known as “Tangway” where Spanish authorities constructed a fort from which the city of Cavite rose. Archeological evidence in coastal areas show prehistorical settlements. According to local folklore, the earliest settlers of Cavite came from Sulu or Borneo. In the 17th century, encomiendas (Spanish Royal land grants) were given in Cavite and Maragondon. Jesuit priests brought in settlers from Mollucas. These settlers, known as “Mardicas,” settled in Ternate and Maragondon. Other settlements grew and by the start of the 18th century, Cavite towns were already trading with one another. Traditional industries began to thrive as Manila’s commerce grew.

In 1872, Filipinos launched their revolt against Spain. Three Filipino priests—Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora—were implicated in the Cavite mutiny when 200 Filipinos staged a rebellion within Spanish garrisons. On August 28, 1896, when the revolution against Spain broke out, Cavite became a bloody theater of war. Led by Emilio Aguinaldo, Caviteños made lightning raids on Spanish headquarters, and soon liberated the entire province. Aguinaldo commanded the Revolution to its successful end: the proclamation of the Republic of the Philippines, on June 12, 1898 in Kawit, the first constitutional republic in Asia, and third established overall, after the Lanfang Republic in 1777, and the Republic of Formosa in 1895.

Islands of Cavite

  1. Balot Island, located at the mouth of Ternate River[5]
  2. Caballo Island
  3. Corregidor
  4. El Fraile Island
  5. Carabao Island
  6. La Monja Island, located west of Corregidor
  7. Limbones Island, located off Maragondon coast near Batangas border
  8. Pulo ni Burunggoy (now Island Cove Resort) located in Bacoor Bay[6]
  9. Santa Amalia Island, located NW of Corregidor[7]

Topography and slope

Situated at the entrance of Manila Bay, Cavite is characterized by rolling hinterlands punctuated by hills; shoreland fronting Manila Bay at sea level; and rugged portion at the boundary of Batangas where the Dos Picos mountains are located. The province has two principal rivers and two mountain ranges.

Cavite is divided into four physiographical areas, namely: the lowest lowland area, lowland area, the central hilly area and the upland mountainous area.

  • The lowest lowland area is the coastal plain in particular. These areas have extremely low ground level of EL. 0m to EL. 2m compared to the high tide level of about EL. 0.8m from the Mean Sea Level (MSL). These are the cities of Cavite, Bacoor and the municipalities of Kawit, Noveleta, Rosario, northern part of Carmona and eastern part of Ternate.
  • The lowland area consists of the coastal and alluvial plains. These areas have flat ground slope of less than 0.5% and low ground elevation of EL. 2m to EL. 30m. The alluvial plain can be found in the city of Imus and southern part of General Trias. Into these municipalities forms the transition area between the coastal plain and the central hilly area. It also covers some areas of Bacoor, Kawit, Noveleta, Rosario, Tanza and Carmona.
  • The last topography type is upland mountainous area, found in Magallanes, Amadeo, Tagaytay, Mendez, Alfonso, southern part of Maragondon and Carmona. They are situated at a very high elevation above EL. 400m with slopes of more than 2%.[8] The Tagaytay ridge has an average elevation of 610 metres (2,000 ft) with Mount Sungay (now Peoples Park in the Sky) at 14°8′31.71″N 121°1′19.02″E, the highest elevation in the province at 716 metres (2,349 ft).[9] The mountain was much higher before, topped by rock formations that resembled horns (Sungay in Tagalog) hence the name. Unfortunately, the prominence of the mountain was leveled in half during the construction of Peoples Park in the Sky during the Marcos administration.

Land resources and distribution

Cavite’s land resources are categorized into two: forest lands and alienable and disposable lands. Forest lands are being maintained as they play a great role for the ecological balance of the Province aside from the fact that they are home to numerous flora and fauna that needs to be protected and preserved. Correspondingly, the alienable and disposable lands are the built-up areas as well as production areas. These lands are intended for urban, economic and demographic developments.

Forest Lands

Cavite Province lies in the western monsoon forest zone. This location is very beneficial for the formation of tropical rainforests which are characteristically made through natural vegetation. In 2007, the existing for estarea within the province totalled to 8,624.956 hectares. These forest areas were categorized as Protected Landscape under R.A.7586 otherwise known as National Integrated Protected Area System (NIPAS) and the unclassified forest (Non-N I P A S ) . By virtue of Proclamation Number 1594 on 26 October 1976, a total of 4,000 hectares located in Ternate and Maragondon, Cavite was proclaimed as national park, now known as the Mts. Palay-Palay and Mataas na Gulod Protected Landscape. The park lies in the border of Cavite and Batangas and has three peaks, Palay-Palay, Pico de Loro and Mataas na Gulod. Still, there were five (5) unclassified forests found along Tagaytay Ridge, Maragondon, Magallanes, Ternate and Alfonso . With regards to the records of mountains, seven were named such as Pico de Loro, Mt. Palay-Palay, Mt. Buntis, Mt. Mataas na Gulod, Mt. Nagpatong, Mt. Hulog and Mt. Gonzales.

The richness of Cavite’s forest provides the abundance of different forest products. Grass in nature, bamboo, is one of the most available forest products being found in the municipalities of Ternate, Magallanes, Maragondon and General Aguinaldo throughout the year.

Alienable and Disposable Lands

These lands are being used in various ways, either for agriculture, residences, open areas, etc. These actual uses are termed as land-u s e .

Based on the Cavite Provincial Physical Framework Plan 2005-2010, Cavite’s alienable and disposable lands are further classified into production lands and built-up areas. Production lands in Cavite are intended for agriculture, fishery and mining. On the other hand, built-up areas are mainly for residential areas, commercial, industrial and tourism areas.

Production Land-Use

Majority of production land-use is into agriculture. Considering that 50.33% of the total provincial land area is engaged into agriculture, it can be generalized that in spite of rapid urbanization in the province, Cavite remains to have an agricultural economy that makes food security attainable. Some of the major crops being produced in the province are rice, corn, coffee, coconuts, cutflowers and vegetables.

Included in the agricultural land use are livestock farms that range from piggeries, poultries, goat farms and cattle farms. The climatic suitability of Cavite makes the province ideal for integrated farming, having crops and livestock rising in one farm.

Fishery is also another major component of the agricultural sector. Having rich marine resources and long coastlines, the province is home to numerous fishery activities . This industry has provided livelihood to many Caviteños. In some lowland and even upland areas, fishery, in the form of fish ponds are also producing considerable amount of fish products. Some areas in Cavite are also engaged in fish processing and production of fish products like fish sauce.

Mining is the third component of production land-use in the province. As of 2009, there are 15 mining and quarrying areas operating in Cavite. Extraction includes filling materials, gravel and sand.

Built-up Areas

The built-up areas are mainly composed of residential and industrial sites. This also includes commercial and business areas where commerce is transpiring. According to the 2007 Census of Population and Housing by the National Statistics Office, there are 611,450 occupied housing units in Cavite.

Moreover, according to the Housing and Land-Use Regulatory Board, there are around 1,224 housing subdivisions with issued license to sell in the province until 2009 which occupies an area of 9,471 hectares.

Meanwhile, the industrial sector also develops rapidly in the Province. For 2009, operational industrial estates cover around 2,939 hectares. Tourism establishments are also considered built-up areas such as golf courses, leisure farms, resorts and the likes.[8]

Water resources

Six major rivers are identified in Cavite. Numerous springs, waterfalls and rivers found in the upland areas of the province are observed to be useful for domestic, tourism, and industrial users. The province is also endowed with waterfalls.

The hydrological network of the province is composed of main rivers and tributaries. These rivers and tributaries generally have a flowing direction from the highlands of Tagaytay going to Manila Bay with stretches from the City of Bacoor up to Ternate.

In the lowland areas covering the cities of Bacoor, Imus, Dasmariñas and the towns of General Trias, Naic, Tanza, Ternate, hundreds of artesian wells and deepwells provide water supply for both domestic and irrigation purposes.

Cavite boasts a stretch of about 123 kilometers of shoreline. These can be found along Cavite City, Bacoor, Kawit, Noveleta, Rosario, Tanza, Naic, Maragondon, and Ternate. The richness of Cavite’s coastal resources paved the way for our recognition as major producer of oysters and mussels. The fisherfolks are also active producers of sugpo/bangus. On the western coastlines lie the breathtaking beaches with pale gray sand. Thus, basically, coastal resource of the province contributes to the economic activities related to fishery and tourism.[10]

  • Major Rivers

These rivers are known to have various tributaries passing through the municipalities of the province.

  1. Maragondon River
  2. Labac River
  3. Cañas River
  4. San Juan River
  5. Bacoor River
  6. Imus River
  • Springs
  1. Balite Spring (Amadeo)
  2. Saluysoy Spring (Alfonso)
  3. Matang Tubig Spring (Tagaytay)
  4. Malakas Spring ( General Aguinaldo)
  5. Ulo Spring (Mendez)
  • Mini Dam
  1. Prinsa Dam (Bacoor City)
  • Waterfalls
  1. Palsajingin Falls (Indang)
  2. Balite Falls (Amadeo)
  3. Malibiclibic Falls (Gen. Aguinaldo)
  4. Talon-Butas Falls (Gen. Aguinaldo)
  5. Saluysoy Falls (Alfonso)
  6. Tala River (Gen. Aguinaldo)

Soil properties

Cavite is composed of several soil types according to soil surveys conducted by the Bureau of Soils and Water Management (BSWM). Classification of soil types in a specific area is a very important consideration in identifying its most fitted land-use. This way, utmost productivity can be achieved.

The lowland area of Cavite is generally composed of Guadalupe clay and clay loam. It is characterized as coarse and granular when dry but sticky and plastic when wet. Its substratum is solid volcanic tuff. These types of soils are suited to lowland rice and corn while those in the upland are suited for orchard and pasture. Guadalupe clay adobes are abundant in the southern part of Bacoor and Imus bordering Dasmariñas. The soil is hard and compact and difficult to cultivate that makes it generally unsuitable for diverse cropping. It is very sticky when wet and granular when dry. Forage grass is advised for this type of soil. Hydrosol and Obando sand are found along Bacoor Bay. The shoreline of Rosario, Tanza, Naic and Ternate are lined with Guadalupe sand.

The central area principally consists of Magallanes loam with streaks of Magallanes clay loam of sandy texture. This is recommended for diversified farming such as the cultivation of upland rice, corn, sugarcane, vegetables, coconut, coffee, mangoes and other fruit trees. The steep phase should be forested or planted to rootcrops. The eastern side of Cavite consists of Carmona clay loam with streaks of Carmona clay loam steep phase and Carmona sandy clay loam. This type of soil is granular with tuffaceaous material and concretions. It is hard and compact when dry, sticky and plastic when wet. This type of soil is planted to rice with irrigation or sugarcane without irrigation. Fruit trees such as mango, avocado and citrus are also grown in this type of soil. Guingua fine sandy loam is found along the lower part of Malabon and Alang-ilang River at Noveleta.

The type of soils that dominate the upland areas are Tagaytay loam and Tagaytay sandy loam with mountain soil undifferentiated found on the south-eastern side bordering Laguna province. Also on the southern tip are Magallanes clay and Mountain soil undifferentiated with interlacing of Magallanes clay loam steep phase. The Tagaytay loam contains fine sandy materials, moderately friable, and easy to work on when moist. In an undisturbed condition, it bakes and becomes hard when dry. About one-half of this soil type is devoted to upland rice and upland crops. On the other hand, Tagaytay sandy loam is friable and granular with considerable amount of volcanic sand and underlain by adobe clay. Mountain soil undifferentiated is forested with bamboos found in the sea coast. Cavite also has the Patungan sand characterized by pale gray to almost white sand with substratum of marine conglomerates which are found at Sta. Mercedes in Maragondon and in some coastlines of Ternate.[8]

Mineral resources and reserves

The greater parts of Cavite are composed of volcanic materials, tuff, cinders, basalt, breccias, agglomerate and interbeddings of shales, and sandstones. The dormant and active volcanoes (Taal) are within these volcanic areas and have been the sources of volcanic materials which form the Tagaytay Cuesta. The drainage systems are deeply entrenched in the tuffs, eroding thin interbedded sandstones and conglomerate rocks which are the sources of little reserves of sand and gravel in the larger stream. Adobe stone quarries also flourish in the tuff areas.

Cavite coastal areas have marl and conglomerate sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks which are prominent in the high, mountainous regions of western part of the province. Black sands are found in Kawit while Noveleta has its own salt products. Magallanes has gravel deposits while reserves of sand and gravel materials are found in Alfonso, Carmona, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, Naic, Ternate, Maragondon and Silang.[8]

Climate

Cavite belongs to Type 1 climate based on the Climate Map of the Philippines by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration(PAGASA). Being a Type 1, Cavite has two pronounced seasons – the dry season, which usually begins in November and ends in April, and the rainy season, which starts in May and ends in October. Cavite’s cool periods are from December to February while summer months are from April to May.[8]

History

 

Menu

0:00

 

Cavite Hymn

Cavite is named as the Historical Capital of the Philippines. It is the cradle of Philippine Revolution, and the birthplace of Philippine Independence.

Cavite Mutiny

Part of the Philippine revolts against Spain

Date

January 20, 1872

Location

Fort San Felipe, Cavite, Philippines

Result

Spanish victory

Belligerents

 Spain Filipino workers and military personnel

Commanders and leaders

Felipe Ginoves Sgt. Ferdinand La Madrid

Strength

One regiment, four cannons Around 200 soldiers and laborers

Cavite got its name from a Tagalog word kawit (which means hook) owing to the hook-shaped land on the Old Spanish map. The land was formerly known as “Tangway” where Spanish authorities constructed a fort from which the city of Cavite rose. Archeological evidence in coastal areas show prehistorical settlements. According to local folklore, the earliest settlers of Cavite came from Sulu or Borneo. In the 17th century, encomiendas (Spanish Royal land grants) were given in Cavite and Maragondon. Jesuit priests brought in settlers from Mollucas. These settlers, known as “Mardicas,” settled in Ternate and Maragondon. Other settlements grew and by the start of the 18th century, Cavite towns were already trading with one another. Traditional industries began to thrive as Manila’s commerce grew.

In 1872, Filipinos launched their revolt against Spain. Three Filipino priests—Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora—were implicated in the Cavite mutiny when 200 Filipinos staged a rebellion within Spanish garrisons. On August 28, 1896, when the revolution against Spain broke out, Cavite became a bloody theater of war. Led by Emilio Aguinaldo, Caviteños made lightning raids on Spanish headquarters, and soon liberated the entire province. Aguinaldo commanded the Revolution to its successful end: the proclamation of the Republic of the Philippines, on June 12, 1898 in Kawit, the first constitutional republic in Asia, and third established overall, after the Lanfang Republic in 1777, and the Republic of Formosa in 1895.